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Forschungsarbeit

By Bunafsha Mislimshoeva (02.07.2012)

Tajikistan is a landlocked country, located in Central Asia, home to 6.80 million people. In 1991 it became an independent country after being one of the Socialist republics of the Soviet Union for almost 70 years. With gaining the independence, Tajikistan experienced a brutal civil war causing tremendous human losses and crisis in all sectors.

Fig. 1: Illegal cutting in the forests.[Bildunterschrift / Subline]: Fig. 1: Illegal cutting in the forests. Photo: Mislimshoeva, 2007

An energy crisis which continues until today is characterized by a huge gap between supply and demand of energy sources - especially in winter, when in some parts of the high mountainous rural areas temperatures can fall under -45°C. As there is almost no other source of energy, the local population and state institutions have to use fuel wood for heating and cooking. Thus uncontrolled cuttings of forests have been leading to a massive deforestation. Additionally a lack of fodder forces local people to use forests as pasture which leads to a destruction of juvenile growth (see Fig. 1 and Fig. 2).

Fig. 2: Uncontrolled grazing in the forests.[Bildunterschrift / Subline]: Fig. 2: Uncontrolled grazing in the forests. Photo: Mislimshoeva, 2008

All forests in Tajikistan belong to the State. However the weak forest management system, characterized by a lack of finance, needed specialists and transparency in its regulations to sustainably manage the forests.
This research has been carried out in the Gorno Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast (GBAO) of Tajikistan. Forests in GBAO are formed in the floodplains and along the small rivers coming from the gorges (see Fig. 3).  

Fig. 3: Riparian forest in the Tajik Pamirs.[Bildunterschrift / Subline]: Fig. 3: Riparian forest in the Tajik Pamirs. Photo: Mislimshoeva, 2011

In 2005 for the protection of these forests the State Forest Agency (SFA) with the collaboration of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) started to implement Joint Forest Management (JFM) approach in order to develop forests by involving local people. The SFA on the basis of contracts hands long term property rights over to local people who depend on forests and in return help the SFA to achieve its protection and rehabilitation goals.
JFM turned out to be an appropriate tool to manage a sustainable use of forests, where local people can receive some benefits from their participation. However in severely degraded areas first an initial investment is necessary. In such areas SFA and GIZ have recently started to test the Saving Book Approach (SBA), which was successfully applied in Vietnam. Local people, participating in the rehabilitation of a plot will be compensated until benefits in form of forest products can be gained. A payment is conducted for six years. The SFA and the tenants elaborate an achievable annual plan. After achieving the annual goals, a respective amount of money will be compensated from the saving book for the tenant.
In this presented situation the purpose of the research is to determine the influential factors on local peoples’ Willingness to Enroll in SBA in three villages. The empirical results show that out of many other factors such as benefits expectations, social pressure, age, education, occupation and income, availability of labor force in the family was the main factor for participation in SBA in all villages. 
The research results will be applied for the further dissemination of SBA.


Education
  • 10/2009 - 11/2011
  • Graduate Program (M.Sc.) Global Change Ecology within the Elite Network of Bavaria, Bayreuth University, Germany
  • 09/2003 – 06/2008
  • B.Sc. Ecology, Khorog State University, Diploma thesis: Assessment of degradation levels of Ishkashim forests and their potential for rehabilitation, Tajikistan
  • 09/1992 – 05/2003
  • Secondary schools # 12 named by Shirinsho Shotemur, Shugnan district, GBAO, Tajikistan

Trainings
  • 11/2010
  • The negotiation, design and implementation of climate agreements, Oslo, Norway
  • 10/2010
  • Assessing and communicating the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services, Thurnau, Gremany
  • 05/2010
  • Team leading, Beilgries, Germany
  • 03/2010
  • Team-oriented corporation in projects, Beilgries, Germany
  • 08-09/2009
  • German language course, Did Deutsch Institute, Berlin, Germany
  • 05/2009
  • Inter - Regional Training Course (IRTC) for Asia, NCCR North-South / UCA, Tajikistan, Dushanbe
  • 05/2008 – 02/2009
  • United Nations Environmental Programme Eco - Peace Leadership Programme (UNEP-EPLC), South Korea, Tajikistan
  • 08/2007
  • Participatory planning and activities for community based conservation of natural resources, Snow Leopard Conservation (SLC), Tajikistan
  • 07/2007
  • Participatory research methods and disaster mitigation, Central Asian Mountain Program (CAMP) Kuhiston, Tajikistan
  • 06/2007
  • Sustainable pasture management, Central Asian Mountain Program (CAMP) Kuhiston, Tajikistan